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Makale Modals in English Grammar (İngilizcede Dilek Kipleri)

İngilizcede istek, dilek bildiren yapılar ve bunların kullanımları ile ilgili bir yazı.

1. can
UseExamples
ability to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be able to)I can speak English.
permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to)Can I go to the cinema?
requestCan you wait a moment, please?
offerI can lend you my car till tomorrow.
suggestionCan we visit Grandma at the weekend?
possibilityIt can get very hot in Arizona.
2. could
UseExamples
ability to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be able to)I could speak English.
permission to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be allowed to)I could go to the cinema.
polite question *Could I go to the cinema, please?
polite request *Could you wait a moment, please?
polite offer *I could lend you my car till tomorrow.
polite suggestion *Could we visit Grandma at the weekend?
possibility *It could get very hot in Montana.
3. may
UseExamples
possibilityIt may rain today.
permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to)May I go to the cinema?
polite suggestionMay I help you?
4. might
UseExamples
possibility (less possible than may) *It might rain today.
hesitant offer *Might I help you?
5. must
UseExamples
force, necessityI must go to the supermarket today.
possibilityYou must be tired.
advice, recommendationYou must see the new film with Brad Pitt.
6. must not/may not
UseExamples
prohibition (must is a little stronger)You mustn't work on dad's computer.
You may not work on dad's computer.
7. need not
UseExamples
sth. is not necessaryI needn't go to the supermarket, we're going to the restaurant tonight.
8. ought to
similar to shouldought to sounds a little less subjective

UseExamples
adviceYou ought to drive carefully in bad weather.
obligationYou ought to switch off the light when you leave the room.
9. shall
used instead of will in the 1st person

UseExamples
suggestionShall I carry your bag?
10. should
UseExamples
adviceYou should drive carefully in bad weather.
obligationYou should switch off the light when you leave the room.
11. will
UseExamples
wish, request, demand, order (less polite than would)Will you please shut the door?
prediction, assumptionI think it will rain on Friday.
promiseI will stop smoking.
spontaneous decisionCan somebody drive me to the station? - I will.
habitsShe's strange, she'll sit for hours without talking.
12. would
UseExamples
wish, request (more polite than will)Would you shut the door, please?
habits in the pastSometimes he would bring me some flowers.
* These are no past forms, they refer to the future.
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